German startups lay the groundwork for a marijuana bonanza

“Germany is traditionally conservative and has always
been politically very cautious,” said Finn Hänsel, a founder of Sanity Group,
the startup that built the high-tech facility, where a dozen well-paid
technicians in white coats use chromatography to test the makeup of imported
cannabis plants. The company asked that the exact location of the farmhouse
remain a secret for security reasons.

The idea that marijuana could become legal “is still
somehow unbelievable to me,” Hänsel said.

Germany’s new government announced that it would
legalise recreational cannabis for adults in its coalition contract presented
in October. Although no bill or official schedule for a law exists yet, experts
believe one will be passed within the next two years.

Medical marijuana is legal in Germany, and small
quantities of the drug for personal use were decriminalised years ago, but
companies like Sanity Group are scrambling to make sure they are ready to
supply a recreational market.

“The legalisation of cannabis is a paradigm shift,”
Kirsten Kappert-Gonther, a medical doctor and Green member of Parliament, said
in an email. “Anyone who would prefer to consume a hash cookie instead of an after-work
beer in the future should be able to make that decision and stay on legal

Recreational marijuana is legal in a number of US
states and in a few countries, including Canada and Malta.

While the arrival of legal marijuana is being anticipated
by businesses around Germany, Jakob Manthey, a scientist at the Center for
Interdisciplinary Addiction Research at the University of Hamburg, warns of
rash decisions.

“A huge market is being created here, and that could
ultimately also be a reason — or an important factor — that will ultimately
lead to the voices of scientists being considered less carefully than the
voices of business interests,” he said in a recent interview.

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Although he approves legalising marijuana, Manthey
said that Germany’s legal market — in Europe’s biggest economy — will have a
signalling effect on the rest of the European Union, where several nations are
slowly coming around to legalisation; tiny Malta was the first. Lawmakers need
to be aware of that bigger responsibility, he said.

Hänsel co-founded his cannabis company in 2018 after
successfully starting several conventional businesses. He said he saw a great
business opportunity in legal cannabis.

Right now, the work at the converted farmhouse is
focused on the medical and wellness sectors, but it is set to scale up as soon
as the recreational market comes online. Sanity Group says it has received more
than 65 million euros, or about $73 million, in funding to date from
international and national investors, including Casa Verde, Snoop Dogg’s
investment fund; musician; actress Alyssa Milano; a German soccer
star; as well as more conventional investment funds.

No one knows exactly how much can be made once weed
goes fully legitimate. But a recent study estimated that legalised cannabis
could generate nearly 5 billion euros annually in tax revenue and savings in
policing. The study, led by Justus Haucap, an economist at the Düsseldorf
Institute for Competition Economics, also estimates that legalisation could
create 27,000 new jobs. According to Haucap’s research, the legal market could
generate demand for 400 tons per year.

Some lawmakers, though, insist that the main goal of
legalisation is not the state’s bottom line, but the societal danger of the
drug if left unregulated.

“We need to get cannabis out of the grungy corner,”
said Andrew Ullmann, a medical doctor and US-born member of the German

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Ullmann, who is a pro-business Free Democrat, is
likely to help shape the law as a member of the health committee. One of the
most important aspects is to ensure that marijuana is not sold to people
younger than 18. “Our intention is to eliminate the black market,” he said.

The plan is to sell cannabis in licensed distribution
sites, where quality can be ensured, sales taxes can be collected, and it can
be kept out of the hands of minors. The most likely route, many say, is that
pharmacies — which now dispense medical marijuana — continue to sell the drug.

That would solve the problems of having to create and
regulate a new commercial distribution system, as has been the case in many US
states, or of not having enough government-licensed distributors, as was
evident during Canada’s rollout.

For Germany, known for its burdensome bureaucracy,
legalisation within two years would be a relatively quick change.

But German startups say they will be ready and

Stefan Langer, who uses medical marijuana to treat his
ADHD, founded Bavaria Weed. He bought one of the last Cold War bunkers to be
built in Bavaria and installed a production line that is capable of packaging
20,000 individual doses a day. Keeping his business above board, which includes
filing to both a medical authority and a controlled-substance authority, each
with its own rules, is more than a full-time job, Langer said.

Although some German companies grow their own plants,
neither Sanity Group nor Bavaria Weed do. They import the product from
far-flung places like Portugal or Canada. All of it has to be licensed and
documented for German authorities.

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Sanity Group’s lab at the former winery, which is
dedicated to extraction and production, is kept under positive air pressure and
is accessible only through a clean room. There, a team works out methods to
more efficiently extract and better render THC, the cannabinoid responsible for
the classic buzz, and CBD, the substance said to help relieve stress. In its
current configuration, the processing plant can handle 21 tons of cannabis a
year, according to the company.

Sanity Group also built an 800-square-foot
controlled-substance storage vault on the winemaker’s grounds. To satisfy
historical preservation laws, the structure had to be wood-clad. Its security
cameras and alarm system link directly to the local police station; its walls
are armoured and nearly 1 foot thick, and its heavy metal door would put a bank
to shame.

Germans appear to be coming around to the idea of
legalising marijuana. A recent survey by Infratest Dimap for the first time
found more respondents in favour of legalisation (49%) than against it (46%).
In 2014, only 30% said they were in favor of legalisation.

Kevin Roth, a biopharmaceutical engineer who studied
cannabis and is overseeing the building of the laboratory on the winery
property, said there had been a shift from the stigmatisation of marijuana
after it was authorised for medical use.

On a recent open-house day, the lab invited neighbours
to come and see what was being done in their village. The employees were
apprehensive at first but said they were met with much more acceptance than
they had expected from the conservative rural community.

“It turns out there are a lot of similarities between
vintners and people in the cannabis business,” Roth said.

©2022 The New York Times Company

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